Finland[ edit ] Finland does not officially recognise private universities, but does not explicitly forbid them either. Helsinki School of Business is an example of one such educational institution operating in this market. France has a dual system: It is forbidden by law for a private institution to be called "university",  and almost all universities are public.
However this doesn't include visitors or those who aren't considered to have an interest in the land. If a neighbour interferes with that quiet enjoyment, either by creating smells, sounds, pollution or any other hazard that extends past the boundaries of the property, the affected party may make a claim in nuisance.
Legally, the term nuisance is traditionally used in three ways: Instead, it arose from activities taking place on another person's land that affected the enjoyment of that land.
It includes conduct that interferes with public health, safety, peace or convenience. The unreasonableness may be evidenced by statute, or by the nature of the act, including how long, and how bad, the effects of the activity may be.
In most cases, normal uses of a property that can constitute quiet enjoyment cannot be restrained in nuisance either. For example, the sound of a crying baby may Private peacefull annoying, but it is an expected part of quiet enjoyment of property and does not constitute a nuisance.
If a nuisance is widespread enough, but yet has a public purpose, it is often treated at law as a public nuisance.
Owners Private peacefull interests in real property whether owners, lessors, or holders of an easement or other interest have standing only to bring private nuisance suits.
According to Oldham v Lawson  where held that the husband has a mere licence and had no title to sue whereas his wife as owner did have title to sue and some later cases, exclusive possession is necessary to establish a private nuisance case.
However, one situation related to transform a private nuisance against land to one against person, this case is no longer considered to be authoritative.
As such, most jurisdictions now have a system of land use planning e. Zoning generally overrules nuisance. Jurisdictions without zoning laws essentially leave land use to be determined by the laws concerning nuisance. Similarly, modern environmental laws are an adaptation of the doctrine of nuisance to modern complex societies, in that a person's use of his property may harmfully affect another's property, or person, far from the nuisance activity, and from causes not easily integrated into historic understandings of nuisance law.
Remedies[ edit ] Under the common law, the only remedy for a nuisance was the payment of damages. However, with the development of the courts of equity, the remedy of an injunction became available to prevent a defendant from repeating the activity that caused the nuisance, and specifying punishment for contempt if the defendant is in breach of such an injunction.
The law and economics movement has been involved in analyzing the most efficient choice of remedies given the circumstances of the nuisance. The New York court allowed the cement plant owner to 'purchase' the injunction for a specified amount—the permanent damages.
In theory, the permanent damage amount should be the net present value of all future damages suffered by the plaintiff. Inspector of Nuisances[ edit ] An Inspector of Nuisances was the title of an office in several English-speaking jurisdictions. In medieval England it was an office of the Courts Leet and later it was also a parochial office concerned with local action against a wide range of 'nuisances' under the common law: In the United Kingdom from the mid- 19th century this office became associated with solving public health and sanitation problems, with other types of nuisances being dealt with by the local constables.
Liverpool later promoted a private Act, the Liverpool Sanatory sic Actthat created a statutory post of Inspector of Nuisances. This became the precedent for later local and national legislation.
So in some places the title was 'Sanitary Inspector' and in others 'Inspector of Nuisances'.Michael Morpurgo, former Children's Laureate of Britain, is the author of War Horse, called “Superb" by the New York Times Book Review, and now a major motion picture.
Nuisance (from archaic nocence, through Fr. noisance, nuisance, from Lat. nocere, "to hurt") is a common law benjaminpohle.com means that which causes offence, annoyance, trouble or injury.A nuisance can be either public (also "common") or private.
A public nuisance was defined by English scholar Sir J. F. Stephen as, "an act not warranted by law, or an omission to discharge a legal duty, which act or.
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