Posted on November 30, by Scott Alexander [epistemic status: My bias is against the current college system doing much good. I have tried not to be bogged down by this bias, but take it into account when reading my interpretations below.
Pedagogy[ edit ] When teachers use Socratic questioning in teaching, their purpose may be to probe student thinking, to determine the extent of student knowledge on a given topic, issue or subject, to model Socratic questioning for students or to help students analyze a concept or line of reasoning.
It is suggested that students should learn the discipline of Socratic questioning so that they begin to use it in reasoning through complex issues, in understanding and assessing the thinking of others and in following-out the implications of what they and others think.
In fact, Socrates himself thought that questioning was the only defensible form of teaching.
In teaching, teachers can use Socratic questioning for at least two purposes: To deeply probe student thinking, to help students begin to distinguish what they know or understand from what they do not know or understand and to help them develop intellectual humility in the process.
To foster students' abilities to ask Socratic questions, to help students acquire the powerful tools of Socratic dialogue, so that they can use these tools in everyday life in questioning themselves and others. To this end, teachers can model the questioning strategies they want students to emulate and employ.
Moreover, teachers need to directly teach students how to construct and ask deep questions. Beyond that, students need practice to improve their questioning abilities. Socratic questioning illuminates the importance of questioning in learning.
This includes differentiating between systematic and fragmented thinking, while forcing individuals to understand the root of their knowledge and ideas. Educators who support the use of Socratic Questioning in educational settings argue that it helps students become active and independent learners.
Examples of Socratic questions that are used for students in educational settings: Socrates argued for the necessity of probing individual knowledge, and acknowledging what one may not know or understand.
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|Why is thinking critically so hard?||Introduction The main topic of the article is the Western metaphilosophy of the last hundred years or so. But that topic is broached via a sketch of some earlier Western metaphilosophies.|
Critical thinking has the goal of reflective thinking that focuses on what should be believed or done about a topic. Socrates argued that a lack of knowledge is not bad, but students must strive to make known what they don't know through the means of a form of critical thinking.
Critical thinking provides the rational tools to monitor, assess, and perhaps reconstitute or re-direct our thinking and action.
This is what educational reformer John Dewey described as reflective inquiry: The technique of questioning or leading discussion is spontaneous, exploratory, and issue-specific.
This requires educators to create active learning environments that promote and value the role of critical thinking, mobilizing their ability to form complex thoughts and questions. A set of Socratic questions in cognitive therapy aim to deal with automatic thoughts that distress the patient: And what evidence is against its being true?
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